This photograph of a Tajik wedding ritual is from Turkestan Album, one of the richest sources of visual information on the cultural monuments of Central Asia as they appeared in the 19th century. This multi-volume work was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of Konstantin P. von Kaufman, a Russian army general and the first […]

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3. Creating Dalhart BAM WHITE FOUND a shack outside of Dalhart, and the man who owned it said he could put his family up there, grow anything he dared on the ground nearby, and split the proceeds with him. Sharecropping was better than wandering south in a wagon with half a team of horses, so […]

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25 Floréal Moscow and Peking had supposed that the Third World would rescue them. In the Russian Revolution, the Bolsheviks had really won because they had recruited the earliest version of it: you could tell assorted downtrodden Eastern peoples that colonialism was the enemy, that Marxism was the friend. After they had won the civil […]

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Did the Earliest Christians Really Believe in Substitutionary Atonement?

the earliest Christians had no clear understanding for why Jesus died on the cross and what it accomplished. The idea of a substitutionary atonement is a late invention designed to retroactively explain the (otherwise embarrassing) death of Jesus. In fact, it was not until Anselm’s Cur Deus Homo (Why the God-Man?) in the middle ages […]

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Empires Around 1350 B.C

The above map shows the extent of the ancient near east empires of Egypt (2600 to 650 B.C.), Babylon (2200 to 1600 B.C.), Mitanni (1600 to 1300 B.C.), Hittite (1600 to 1200 B.C.) and Assyria (1500 to 600 B.C.). The New Kingdom of Egypt, also called the Egyptian Empire, was extant from roughly between 1550 […]

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view of the many Biblical references to the North-Arabian tribe of Kedar, it might seem strange that early Arab. lit. contains no reference to it. Arabic lit., however, does not begin to any extent until the rise of Islam in the seventh cent. a.d. Pre-Islamic North-Arab. material is extremely limited in quantity. Almost 1200 years […]

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Ishtar (Mythic) Ishtar, called the Queen of Heaven by the people of ancient Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), was the most important female deity in their pantheon. She shared many aspects with an earlier Sumerian goddess, Inanna (or Inana); the name Ishtar comes from the Semitic language of the Akkadians and is used for the goddess from […]

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